Unit – III
Emergence of Regional Kingdoms: Kingdoms in Deccan: Gangas, Kadmabas, Western and Eastern Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Kalyani Chalukyas, Kakatiyas, Hoysalas and Yadavas.
Kingdoms in South India: Pallavas, Ceras, Colas and Pandyas
Kingdoms in Eastern India: Palas and Senas of Bengal, Varmans of Kamarupa, Bhaumakaras and Somavamsis of Odisha.
Kingdoms in Western India: Maitrakas of Vallabhi and Chalukyas of Gujarat.
Kingdoms in North India: Gurjara-Pratiharas, Kalacuri-Chedis, Gahadavalas and Paramaras.
Characteristics of Early Medieval India: Administration and Political Structure Legitimation of Kingship.
Agrarian economy; land grants, changing production relations; graded land rights and peasantry, water resources, taxation system, coins and currency system;
Trade and urbanization: patterns of trade, and urban settlements, ports and trade routes, merchandise and exchange, trade guilds; trade and colonization in south-east Asia.
Growth of Brahminical religions: Vaisnavism and Saivism; Temples; Patronage and Regional Ramification; Temple Architecture and Regional Styles. Dana, Tirtha and Bhakti, Tamil Bhakti movement – Shankara, Madhava and Ramanujacharya.
Society: Varna, Jati and Proliferation of Castes, Position of women; Gender, marriage and property relations; Women in public life. Tribes as peasants and their place in Varna order. Untouchability.
Education and Educational Institutions: Agraharas, Mathas and Mahaviharas as Centres of Education. Growth of Regional Languages.