Unit – I
Negotiating the Sources: Archaeological sources: Exploration, Excavation, Epigraphy and Numismatics. Dating of Archaeological Sites. Literary Sources: Indigenous Literature: Primary and Secondary: problem of dating Religious and Secular Literature, Myths, Legends, etc. Foreign Accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arabic.
Pastoralism and Food production: Neolithic and Chalcolithic Phase: Settlement, distribution, tools and patterns of exchange.
Indus/Harappa Civilization: Origin, extent, major sites, settlement pattern, craft specialization, religion, society and polity, Decline of Indus Civilization, Internal and external trade, First urbanization in India.
Vedic and later Vedic periods; Aryan debates, Political and Social Institutions, State Structure and Theories of State; Emergence of Varnas and Social Stratification, Religious and Philosophical Ideas. Introduction of Iron Technology, Megaliths of South India.
Expansion of State system: Mahajanapadas, Monarchical and Republican States, Economic and Social Developments and Emergence of Second Urbanization in 6th century BCE; Emergence of heterodox sects-Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivikas.